As one of the components of the EU–China relations, the EU–China energy relationship has experienced an evolution of institutionalization for over two decades. Now, an EU–China energy cooperation institutional framework has been constructed. These institutions have been playing a significant role in helping EU–China energy cooperation by promoting bilateral dialogues and fostering cooperation projects. However, they still face some flaws. The EU and China should continue taking the construction of institutions seriously, and commit to optimize the institutional framework to make it more representative, pragmatic and efficient.